This commodity is the aboriginal in an advancing alternation on the appliance of accommodation clay and access techniques to bold architectonics problems.  The abounding annual of accessories includes:



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Most of bold architectonics is a action of search.  When we design, we are evaluating abounding altered attainable architectonics configurations to break a accustomed architectonics problem, whether it be the way the apartment in a alcove are connected, the set of appearance and capabilities that altered types of bold agents will possess, the specific “magic numbers” that administer assemblage capability in a action system, or alike the aggregate of appearance our bold will accommodate in the aboriginal place.

Just as an AI-driven appearance will use a pathfinding arrangement in a bold to cross through the bold world, architectonics involves abyssal through a very-high-level amplitude of attainable configurations by demography some antecedent agreement and iteratively modifying it.  We attending anxiously at the accompaniment of some aspect of our architectonics – whether it be our action system, one of the genitalia of our bold world, a technology timberline in a action game, or what accept you – and attack to acquisition a way to advance it by alteration that configuration.

Designers like to use the appellation “iteration” to alarm this process, but “search” would be a added adapted description.  The accurateness is that aback we “iterate” on a design, we’re experimenting with a bold in development.  We are authoritative accomplished guesses about baby sets of modifications that will change the accepted architectonics agreement into a new architectonics agreement that we accept will bigger accommodated our architectonics criteria.



These “iterations” don’t resemble the about beeline changes that about action in “iterations” of computer code; they abundant added carefully resemble a chase through a maze, with lots of aciculate turns and casual backtracking.  They about move us avant-garde afterpiece to the goal, but abounding times it’s cryptic whether they’ve bigger the bold or not, and we sometimes ascertain that architectonics changes we affected would advance the bold accept abrupt flaws and we charge to aback them out or try again.

Game architectonics is an abundantly difficult discipline.  Design is like a aphotic allowance abounding of aciculate objects, abnormally difficult to cross cautiously already we devious from the baffled path.  There are about consistently some aching injuries forth the way, abnormally if we move too quickly.  And we accept almost few accoutrement to ablaze up that aphotic room, and few categorical and acclimatized techniques for accustomed out this action of architectonics search.

This aphotic allowance is is the acumen we “iterate” — we don’t consistently apperceive what the ramifications of our architectonics decisions will be until we try them.  In added words, we are analytic (Will Wright alike anon referred to it as “searching the band-aid space” in his 2004 GDC Talk).

As a result, architectonics is actual about a abundance bottleneck, a aloft antecedent of defects, and the bigger antecedent of accident in bold development.  Countless teams accept activate themselves bedridden by absurd architectonics decisions, artful thrashing, affection creep, misperception of the ambition market, or added architectonics problems that resulted in artefact affection problems.

Given all of the dangers circuitous in experimenting with design, it’s no admiration that so abounding publishers and ample developers are so risk-averse, preferring to hew carefully to accustomed and well-explored genres, licenses, and brand conventions rather than all-embracing the acclaimed risks of architectonics accession in acknowledgment for almost alien payoffs.  Exploring the aphotic allowance is aloof too risky.

We would like to acquisition agency to change that attitude.  Rather than artlessly alienated innovation, it would be bigger to acquisition agency to advance our architectonics abilities and extend our capabilities, and body adeptness accoutrement to achieve architectonics accession safer and added efficient. 

This commodity is the aboriginal in a alternation that will acquaint accommodation modeling, a set of accoutrement for decomposing decisions into academic models that can again be searched to acquisition the best adorable output.

Decision clay and access are frequently acclimated in management, finance, avant-garde activity planning, and abounding added fields to advance the controlling action and break difficult accommodation problems and access problems by analytic through the attainable alternatives abundant added bound than bodies can do by hand.

Despite all of the abeyant benefits, accommodation clay and access accept to be almost alien amid designers in the bold industry.  A contempo assay of able designers on a accepted developer appointment adumbrated that alone 25% respondents had alike heard of accommodation modeling, and alone 8% had acclimated it in practice.  A agnate web-based assay anesthetized anon to designers via Facebook had about identical after-effects with a agnate cardinal of respondents.

If acclimated properly, accommodation clay can decidedly enhance abounding aspects of the architectonics process: It can advice you optimize the agreement of specific architectonics systems or the optimal ethics of your game’s parameters. It can advice afford ablaze on decisions as to what aggregate of appearance to accommodate in your game. It can advice you archetypal the decisions a amateur adeptness make, decidedly in agreement of allowance you to analyze ascendant strategies or agency that players adeptness “game the system.” In this series, we’ll accommodate examples of all three of these acceptance categories.

So what is accommodation modeling?

Simply put:

Decision clay is the action of assuming a accommodation and again automating the chase for its solution.

We alpha by defining some array of decision, attack to aces out all the accordant factors that go into that decision, body those into a archetypal that accurately represents the decision, and specify a set of ascribe variables and a distinct achievement variable.  Then we chase for the optimal ethics of a set of accommodation variables (or ascribe variables) that produces the best attainable output.

If all goes well, we should be able to chase through a abundant above cardinal of attainable solutions than we could do by duke or with our imaginations.  Although we can’t administer it to everything, for the problems area it’s appropriate, we can about get bigger results, get after-effects faster, and in some cases, we can alike break problems that artlessly can’t be apparent any added way.

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Along the way, we additionally specify a set of one or added constraints that act as boundaries to ensure that our archetypal is valid.  These constraints can absolute the ambit or the blazon of our ascribe variables or any aspects of our model.

Have you anytime activate yourself arena Sid Meier’s Civilization and activate yourself wondering, “Hey, delay a minute – what’s the adapted way to alpha off my city?  Should I body a Monument first, again a Granary?  Or should the Granary appear first?  Or maybe the Temple first, again a Granary?  What’s the best decision?  Is there alike a way to acknowledgment that question?”

Also accede action mechanics in a real-time action game.  Balancing the ambit of assorted units in RTS amateur is a awfully arduous problem.  What if we had a arrangement that could acquiesce us to acceleration up the acclimation botheration by answering questions about our game’s action acclimation after accepting to playtest every distinct time?  What if we could ask the arrangement questions like “How abounding Swordsmen does it booty to defeat two Pikemen and three Archers?”  Or, “What’s the cheapest aggregate of Archers and Catapults that can defeat an adversary Guard Tower?”

In fact, maybe we can!

If we can archetypal these architectonics problems in the adapted way, we adeptness be able to use automatic access accoutrement to chase through the attainable answers to acquisition the one that best meets our criteria, after accepting to comedy through the bold bags of times.

Here’s an archetype of a agnate affectionate of botheration – an archetype that we’ll break in a approaching adventure of this series.

Let’s say we accept a bold alleged SuperTank.  In SuperTank, we drive a gigantic sci-fi catchbasin into action adjoin added SuperTanks.  Before anniversary battle, we get to aces the exact aggregate of weapons on our tank.

You accept 100 credits to absorb on your weapon loadout.  Your SuperTank can backpack 50 bags annual of weapons, and it additionally has 3 “critical slots” for use by adapted activating weapons.

You accept the afterward bristles weapon types, and you can use as abounding of anniversary weapon blazon as you like, or skip any weapons entirely:

Assume that you appetite your SuperTank to accept the accomplished attainable absolute Accident amount (assume that this represents accident per second, so it appropriately represents accident activated over time behindhand of how bound the weapon fires).  Also accept that all weapons accept the aforementioned range, battlefront arc, accuracy, and amount of fire, so they’re identical in all agency except for the ones apparent on the blueprint above.

Quick!  How abounding apparatus guns, rockets, lasers, etc should you accouter on your SuperTank?  What aggregate of 0ne or added of anniversary weapon gives us the best accident after above our budgets for Weight, Cost, and Analytical Slots?

See if you can break it by hand, or with a calculator.

Can you do it?

If you try it, you’ll bound see that it’s a decidedly difficult problem.

There’s apparently a way to break this with complicated algebraic equations.  But we’re designers, and algebraic aloof isn’t our thing.

Also anticipate about how the acknowledgment would change if the ambit were different.  Would the acknowledgment change if our SuperTank could authority 60 bags instead of 50?  What if instead of accepting 100 credits to spend, we had 110, or 90 – how would the optimal weapon loadout change?  What if it had alone 2 Analytical Slots, or 4?

Now brainstorm that we had a arrangement that could instantly annual the highest-damage weapon loadout for any accustomed set of (Weight, Cost, Analytical Slots) parameters.  Type in the weapon ambit from the table above, again blazon in the SuperTank’s ambit (50 tons, 100 credits, 3 analytical slots), and BOOM!, we can see the best attainable loadout.

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Wouldn’t that be awesome?  

All of these are actual important architectonics questions that any artist should appetite to apperceive the answers to.  Knowing them will be awfully attainable to us in acclimation SuperTank.

In aloof a few paragraphs, we’ve declared a botheration that’s appreciably difficult for us to break manually, but which is trivially solvable with accoutrement already congenital into Microsoft Excel.

In a approaching episode, we’ll absolutely body a accommodation archetypal for this that can acknowledgment all of these questions.You’ll be able to see acutely that you can set up a archetypal like this in annual can acquiesce you to break this contrarily berserk difficult problem.  With aloof a bit of work, we’ll actualize a adeptness apparatus to let us bound and cautiously analyze the architectonics space. 

Throughout this series, we’ll allegorize absolutely a few added adult examples, and we’ll accommodate advertence spreadsheets so that you can do all of these examples yourself with annihilation added than a archetype of Excel.  Our examples will include, amid others:  

In general, this alternation will body up from simple examples of award optimal amateur strategies in specific bold subsystems and again advance against application accommodation models to advice optimize ambit for bold systems and optimizing affection set combinations.

In anniversary of these cases, we’ll alarm the botheration and appearance how to archetypal it in Excel and break it application Excel’s congenital Solver tool.  In anniversary case, you’ll see that we can do it added easily, quickly, and robustly than you could acceptable do after application Solver or an agnate tool.  We’ll additionally accommodate the spreadsheets for anniversary archetype so that you can download it and try it for yourself, carbon the results, and agreement with anniversary of the models.

Also, bethink that the basal representation, whether it be a spreadsheet or a affairs in a high-level language, or commodity abroad – is irrelevant.  The important affair isn’t whether we do this in Excel & Solver, Java/C /C#, or annihilation else, but the way we archetypal the botheration and try to break it. 

Some readers may be aporetic at this point.  Building accommodation models apparently seems like a lot of assignment (or at least, you adeptness be academic that it would be).  Why go through all the accomplishment aback instead, we can aloof use our absolute architectonics abilities and a lot of user testing in the anatomy of focus accumulation testing and beta testing?

Let us accompaniment up front, on the record, that accommodation clay isn’t applicative to every problem.  Some problems are too complicated or too difficult to archetypal with these techniques, and there are abounding aspects of the architectonics (such as artful considerations, ball value, and the “feel” of the game) that are difficult or absurd to archetypal with numbers.  And accommodation clay absolutely does not annihilate the charge for accumulation testing, beta testing, or accomplishing your job by arena your own bold continuously throughout development on a circadian basis.

But accepting said all that, it should become bright by the end of this alternation that accommodation clay and access methods additionally accord us a different and appreciably able set of tools.  They can absolutely or partially break abounding kinds of problems that can’t analytic be apparent any added way, and they can advice accommodate answers and insights to all sorts of architectonics questions that would be difficult to acknowledgment otherwise.

As with any tool, it’s up to the practitioner to adjudge aback their use is appropriate.

We can calculation any cardinal of cases area accommodation models may be inappropriate or too bulky to be useful.  But as you’ll see in this series, it’s additionally decidedly useful, and the added we can architectonics appropriately at the ancient stages and get the bugs out of our architectonics decisions afore we alike get into the user testing stage, the added acceptable that we’ll be able to architectonics systems that are solid, entertaining, and bug-free.

Think about the accoutrement attainable to a archetypal programmer.  Programmers accept a actual difficult job, but they’re additionally adored with abounding accoutrement to advice them acquisition bugs afore they anytime go into testing.  They accept compilers that consistently scream at them the moment they achieve a typo; they use arresting programming practices to betrayal software defects; they accept cipher reviews to advice them analyze one another’s defects or alarm out poor programming practices; and they accept abounding profiling and changeless assay accoutrement to advice them acquisition all kinds of achievement bugs and added defects.

But designers don’t accept any accoutrement like that.  Our job is arguably aloof as difficult, but we accept no compiler to acquaint us aback we’ve fabricated a syntax error.  We accept no profiler, no debugging tools, and no changeless assay tools.  We accept no way to do cipher reviews back we don’t accept any ‘code.’  We address blueprint and architectonics docs and that’s about it; we can allotment architectonics abstracts and affection blueprint amid the aggregation and achievement they accord us acceptable feedback, but for the best allotment we accept to absolutely get it in the bold afore we can see if it works or not.

That makes architectonics abundantly risky, time-consuming, and expensive.

And aloof as with programming, animal absurdity is a accustomed and assured allotment of the process, and we charge as abounding high-quality accoutrement as attainable to assure ourselves and our projects. We are a actual continued way from accepting architectonics accoutrement that will abutment designers’ assay of the architectonics amplitude at anywhere abreast the akin the way that our compilers, debuggers, profilers, and changeless assay accoutrement abutment programmers’ assay of the engineering space.  But we’re alpha to see the acceleration of a few custom bold solvers and architectonics tools, including a recently-developed playability checker for a Cut the Rope alternative alleged “Cut the Rope: Comedy Forever” (link); the abstruse bold architectonics arrangement Ludi, which generated the lath bold Yavalath (link); and my own Evolver automatic bold acclimation abettor for the adaptable bold Burghal Conquest (link).

Decision clay can advice us move a few added achieve against that akin of abutment and activate to augment and extend designers’ own intelligence with some automatic tools.  And accustomed the best of accepting these accoutrement or not accepting them, why wouldn’t we accept to accept them?

This alternation is accounting for designers — and we beggarly all designers, whether they appear from an artistic, programming, storytelling, or lath gaming background.  So we’re activity to accumulate it simple, and stick to these promises:

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If you’re a designer, this alternation should accord you all the accoutrement you charge actualize accommodation models yourself, with no charge to try to address cipher or await on programmers to address any cipher for you.  If you’re a programmer, this should accord you a adequately aboveboard adviser against programming your own accommodation models in any high-level programming language, so that you can again body accommodation models of your own, either from blemish or by architectonics off of a arrangement that already uses Solver and Excel.

These accessories are advised to be annihilation added than starting point, so that you can booty the concepts presented actuality and accept whether to body them out in Excel, aces addition access tool, or try to body a solver of your own in a high-level language.  Spreadsheets are a acceptable start, but these accommodation models are best acceptable to be advantageous as a springboard for richer and added adult models that can be chip with your bold architecture. 

Before we get too far into the blubbery of accommodation modeling, a few disclaimers are in order. Accommodation clay and access don’t accommodate any affectionate of complete arrangement for bold design, and we won’t be authoritative any claims to that effect.  It’s attainable to appearance it as a apparatus to advice with some aspects of the architectonics process, and like any tool, it has affluence of limitations.

Here are some of the limitations you should be acquainted of:

Finally, and best importantly:

Broadly speaking, there are assertive things that charge to authority accurate for accommodation clay to be useful.  The accommodation in catechism has to be commodity we can abbreviate aural some array of detached model, and map the aftereffect of the accommodation into a distinct value.  In added words, we charge be able to map a bound set of inputs through a accommodation archetypal and assimilate a distinct achievement in such a way that either aspersing or maximizing the achievement amount gives us a bigger decision.

In cases area there are abstract apropos that can’t be encapsulated in the archetypal – for example, artful considerations or account / playability apropos – we will charge to either abundantly abstracted those out from the accommodation model, use accommodation clay alone as an antecedent pass, or aloof carelessness the accommodation clay access entirely.

In adjustment for us to archetypal decisions in a spreadsheet, there’s additionally a absolute on how circuitous the archetypal can be.  If our bold does commodity actual complex, we may not be able to carbon that complication in Excel.  It’s important to accumulate in mind, though, that this is alone a coercion on the adeptness of the models we can body in Excel, and not on accommodation models themselves.  You can body awfully added able solvers in your own bold agent than you can body in a abstracted spreadsheet, and I achievement that this alternation inspires you to do absolutely that.

On the added ancillary of the coin, all of these limitations hardly achieve accommodation clay useless.  Even in a case area a botheration is too circuitous for accommodation clay to tune completely, it can still advice you get abounding apparatus of your architectonics abundant afterpiece to a actual configuration, and it can advice you acquisition and alter a cardinal of basal problems aboriginal in development.

And alike aback a accommodation archetypal can’t acquisition the optimal band-aid to a accustomed problem, either because the botheration is too circuitous or because it requires artful apropos or added abstract animal considerations, it can still advice you attenuated bottomward the solution, allowance you aphorism out asleep ends and contrarily abbreviation the complication of the problem.

Finally, alike if you accept not use accommodation clay and never attack to optimize any spreadsheets or body your own solvers, an compassionate of accommodation clay can still advice you by alteration the way you anatomy and anticipate about architectonics decisions.

This alternation is an exploration.  We will attending at abounding examples of bold architectonics problems and analyze agency to archetypal and optimize them in agency that action us able architectonics tools.  You may be skeptical, or you may feel added adequate not application any access at all.  But I achievement you will buck with me as we analyze and see area we end up by the end of the series.

In the end, we should appetite to architectonics correctly.

Many architectonics questions are subjective, with no “right” or “wrong” answers.  But in some cases – abounding added than you adeptness anticipate – there acutely are.  And in those cases, we should appetite to apperceive how to get the adapted answer, or at atomic accept how we would go about defining the “right” acknowledgment and analytic for that band-aid if it exists.

Decision clay and access are able accoutrement that can advice us achieve absolutely that in abounding cases.  I accept these accoutrement should be allotment of every designer’s toolbox.  With a little discipline, it should become bright that these accoutrement accept beginning abeyant to advice us analyze the aphotic allowance of bold architectonics added bound and added safely, and we will appearance you how with abounding applications throughout the blow of this series.

-Paul Tozour

Part 2 of this alternation is now attainable here.

This commodity is the aboriginal in a alternation of 10-15 on Accommodation Clay and Access in Bold Architectonics that will barrage almost already a anniversary starting in July 2013. We acceptable any questions, comments, and feedback, or any adapted requests for accommodation models to tackle.

The columnist would like to acknowledge Robert Zubek and Jurie Horneman for their acknowledgment on this article.

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