3 Monthly Calendar Template Excel Ten Stereotypes About 3 Monthly Calendar Template Excel That Aren’t Always True

By Zachariah Reitano, CEO and Co-founder, Ro & Aron Susman, SVP Finance, Ro

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In the aboriginal canicule of Ro, we accomplished that not every aggregation had the aforementioned akin of compassionate of some of the best important business metrics and how they chronicle to one another.

To fix that, Aron Susman (our Arch of Finance) and I wrote a “Metrics Explained” which was congenital into Ro’s onboarding activity for new Ro’ers. A cardinal of bodies accept begin this accessible so we absitively to allotment it.

For the purposes of this explainer, all of the numbers are fabricated up. We achievement it’s accessible (especially the downloadable arrangement aftereffect archetypal at the end).


Let’s alpha with the adventure of a distinct chump authoritative a acquirement online. We’ll afresh zoom out and attending at memberbases on an accumulated basis.

CAC is a appellation you apparently apprehend frequently. Let’s breach it down. Brainstorm you absorb $10,000 dollars on a Facebook ad that is apparent by 100,000 people…

Member Journey

In the case above, you spent $10,000 to access 50 new customers.

$10,000 / 50 = $200

So it costs you, $200 to access a new customer. This is your Customer Accretion Cost or your CAC.


The “customer accretion cost” is the bulk of money it costs you to access a new customer.

Some bodies exclude business bureau fees in this calculation. For archetype if you pay an bureau 10% of your absorb to administer your FB ads.

CAC is not aloof a Advance aggregation number. This distinct cardinal is adumbrative of so abounding teams alive in harmony.

Now, let’s zoom in!

As you accomplish anniversary footfall easier and easier to complete, you are accretion the cardinal of bodies who complete your onboarding flow. So brainstorm you accomplish a change to the onboarding breeze (e.g., add Apple pay as a acquittal option) and instead of 50 bodies commutual the onboarding, 60 bodies complete the onboarding, which would be a massive 20% improvement.

What does that do to your Customer Accretion Cost? You’ve still spent the aforementioned bulk of money but you’ve acquired 10 added customers.

While we zoomed in on the acquittal footfall in that example, you can brainstorm a agnate aftereffect if you advance added accomplish in the carry (i.e., added bodies bang on your ad).

But that was a massive 20% access in a distinct footfall (i.e., acquittal screen) of the broader funnel. What happens to your Customer Accretion Cost if anniversary footfall of the carry improves by aloof 4%?

A 4% advance in anniversary footfall of the affiliate adventure leads to a abatement in your CAC by 18.04%! Remember, you spent the aforementioned $10,000 but acquired 61 customers.

$10,000 / 61 = $163.93 CAC

Let’s booty a attending at that antecedent chump adventure again.

For every 750 bodies that clicked on “Get Started”, 50 completed the purchase. This agency the allotment of bodies who completed the purchase, about to the cardinal of bodies who started is 6.66% (example about-face number).


The chat bulk is the allotment of bodies who completed a assignment about to the cardinal of bodies who started the task.

Note: it’s important to be specific aback apropos to a about-face rate, because about-face ante are relative. For example, let’s zoom in again.

The about-face bulk from “Get Started” to “Choose Plan” in this book is 66% and the about-face bulk from “Choose Plan” to “Complete Purchase” is 10%. Separating genitalia of the carry and seeing the about-face ante amid alone accomplish can advice you analyze the bigger areas of advance aural the chump adventure (ie., the about-face funnel).

The name is adequately self-descriptive. If 1,000 barter absorb $100,000 in January, and anniversary alone orders one item, the Average Adjustment Value would be $100.


The absolute dollars spent by a accomplice of customers, disconnected by the cardinal of orders.

Here are a few affidavit AOV could change:

Let’s see the appulse of anniversary abeyant change in action.

1. Associates are selecting annual added frequently than monthly

2. Associates adjustment beneath commons (i.e., quantity) per order

3. Associates about-face from meat to vegetarian

4. You bead the bulk on a product

Note: A abatement in AOV isn’t inherently a acceptable or bad thing. It depends on how it relates to margin, CAC, and retention. I’ll explain how these collaborate from a aerial akin afterwards in the post.

There are three types of allowance you generally hear:


The bulk of appurtenances awash (COGS) disconnected by the gross auction price.

Sometimes Bulk of Auction and COGS are acclimated interchangeably, but they beggarly altered things

Here is an example:

Let’s about-face apparatus and use addition artefact bodies generally acquirement online for this example: mattresses.

Imagine you absorb $100,000 for 400 mattresses in account to advertise to your consumers. Anniversary mattress costs you $250 ($100,000/400). Let’s accept the the AOV is $750.

In this scenario, Product Margin is the (Gross Sales Bulk — COGS) / Bulk to Customer

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What a business, right?! But, wait! What about all of the assignment that goes into accepting a chump their mattress? Shipping, packaging, your accomplishment team? Aback accumulated is included, you’re able to calculate Gross Margin.


The bulk of sales (COS) disconnected by the gross auction price. Cost of sales refers to the direct costs attributable to the assembly of the appurtenances or accumulation of services.

Here are the basic items included in Gross Margin:


The “net profit” extra afterwards all capricious costs associated with affairs a artefact or account are deducted from the acquirement generated. This includes discounts and refunds.

To keep Contribution Margin and Gross Margin distinct in your head, try cerebration about Contribution Margin as the allowance that “contributes” to the basal band of the business.

An accounting caveat:

Many companies ascertain things abnormally amid artefact margin, gross margin, and addition margin. For example, some companies:

The best important affair to bethink is that you accept the altered apparatus of your margin, that anniversary analogue is acutely defined, and that anniversary metric is connected aloft time periods.

Hopefully, your academician is already churning and authoritative access amid CAC, About-face Rate, AOV, and Allowance and how they chronicle to and affect one another.

A accessible way to accept the coaction amid these numbers is to booty it to the extreme.

What should anniversary be in a absolute world:

This is impossible. But, it’s advantageous to see a absolute book so that aback you accomplish decisions, you can bigger accept what tradeoffs you’re making.

Let’s run through a few examples area you could accomplish tradeoffs depending on the ambition and see what happens to the added variables.

Example Goal:

Lower CAC. To lower CAC, you can (among abounding added things):

Example Goal:

Increase Margin. To access margin, we can (among abounding added things):

You can see how these metrics can affect one addition and how you will accept to accomplish tradeoffs as you antithesis the abbreviate appellation and the connected term.

In the abutting two sections, we’re activity to attending at a chump over time and your chump abject in aggregate. We’ll booty some of the questions we asked above, “Is it account alms a lower bulk product?”, and add alike added aroma to it. “It depends on how able-bodied those associates retain. Do they adjustment added articles and casework over time? If so, how much?”

Exciting stuff, appropriate 😀?!


In Metrics Akin 1, we analyzed a customer’s adventure from aboriginal audition about your artefact to authoritative a distinct purchase. In this section, we’re activity to attending at a customer’s adventure from that aboriginal acquirement affective forward.

There are so abounding agency to attending at assimilation but, at their core, all assimilation metrics are aggravating to get at the aforementioned thing: are associates continuing to use your artefact or service?


A altitude of the connected use of a artefact or service.

Let’s alpha with the best accepted anatomy of assimilation for a non-software chump cable business: adjustment retention.

Let’s accept 1000 bodies active up for your account for a account cable in January. We’ll accredit to them as the “January Cohort” (i.e., the bodies who active up in January).

How abounding orders, on a account basis, has the January Accomplice ordered since?

This table is bold that in the aboriginal ages (i.e., January), 1000 bodies active up and there were 1000 orders. In the added month, that aforementioned accumulation of 1000 people, ordered 750 orders. In Ages 12 (i.e., 13 months later), 393 orders were created.

If we attending at assimilation on a allotment basis, what would it attending like?

Looking at this chart, we can say:

We can additionally attending at assimilation on a graph:

We looked at Adjustment Assimilation for one blazon of affiliate (i.e., account plans). What would the January Accomplice attending like if we looked at:

By attractive at your cohorts through a altered lens (i.e., slicing the abstracts in altered ways) we can see what types of associates absorb the best.

As an example, let’s booty a attending at the blueprint beneath and see what it would acquaint us about your chump base.

Looking at this chart, we can say, for the January Cohort:

Retention is the primary indicator that you’re continuing to add bulk and accept abiding artefact bazaar fit. Aback a chump continues to pay for articles and services, it is because you are continuing to add bulk to his or her life. This creates a blameless cycle. Greater assimilation leads to added revenue, which leads to added profit, which leads to your actuality able to advance in alms added articles and services, which leads to greater assimilation and the blameless aeon continues.

Let’s put some numbers abaft this blameless aeon 😀

Let’s booty a attending at our admired January Accomplice from aloft and instead of aloof attractive at Adjustment Retention, we’ll add Acquirement Retention, bold an AOV of $100 and a Contribution Margin of 50%.

So in M0, 1000 associates spent $100,000 (i.e., you acceptable $100,000 in revenue), and you accustomed $50,000 in Addition Dollars.

But, how abundant did you absorb in business to access these customers? What was your Customer Accretion Cost?

If we accept a CAC of $200, and we acquired 1000 members, we spent a absolute of $200,000.

So in M0, we spent $200,000 to access $50,000. Why would you do this? You would do this because you ahead barter from the January Accomplice continuing to acquirement orders in the approaching (i.e., retaining).

So, the catechism becomes, how connected does it booty you to access aback the $200,000 you spent to access the 1000 members? Great question! This is alleged the Payback Period.


The time it takes for a accomplice to pay aback in Contribution Dollars the bulk it bulk to access the aforementioned accumulation of members.

Looking at this chart, we can see that in M6 (i.e., 7 months afterwards the January Accomplice active up), they contributed $211,500, which is greater than the $200,000 we spent in business to access them.

So the aftereffect aeon is 7 months.

How can we abatement the aftereffect period? How can we compensate the money we spent on business to access barter faster and accordingly alpha to acknowledgment a accumulation faster?

Assuming added factors break constant, we can:

Think about all of the tiny capacity that would go into anniversary one of those improvements.

Payback Period tells you how connected it takes for a affiliate to “pay back” the bulk of money you spent to access them, but what about the blow of their accord with you and your business?

That’s area LTV or Lifetime Bulk comes in.

Lifetime Bulk (LTV)

Lifetime Bulk is the accumulative addition dollars (i.e., accumulative net profit) over the advance of an absolute accord with a customer.

It’s absurd to apperceive LTV from day 1. But, the best you’re in business, the added abstracts you’ll have, and the bigger you’ll be able to adumbrate or appraisal LTV.

Let’s use our accurate January Accomplice again. What is the bulk of the affiliate afterwards 12 months?

In this chart, we can see that the January Accomplice has contributed a absolute of $311,950 by M11. If we accept 1000 associates in January’s Cohort, anniversary affiliate on boilerplate contributed $312 of Addition Dollars (i.e., Net Profit) afterwards 12 months.

Again, because we don’t apperceive our abounding LTV, in this case we would say:

But what happens from months 12 to 24 to 36? Do barter abide to order?

Since we don’t accept abundant data, we accept to accomplish an assumption. We can see that M11 and M12 appearance the exact aforementioned assimilation (i.e., assimilation has started to abrade out or access an asymptote). Now, it’s alone happened for 2 months in a row so, to be conservative, let’s accept that 35% of associates abide to adjustment from M11 to M23.

In this case, we would say:

We can extend M23 out based on the aforementioned assumptions and see what our 3 or 4 year LTV.

What are some of the things that ability access a member’s LTV?

We’ve discussed Retention, Aftereffect Period, and LTV and how they chronicle to one another. You appetite to increase Retention, which will decrease Payback Period and access LTV.


Almost there! We’ve discussed the adventure of a chump from their aboriginal seeing your ad all the way to lifetime bulk as a customer. We’ve gone abysmal into how CAC, Conversion, AOV, and Margin all affect Retention, Payback Period, and LTV.

For the home stretch, we appetite to dive into three added key metrics that accommodate acumen into the bloom of a business. They afford ablaze on whether your CAC is too high, whether your cohorts are trending in the appropriate direction, and how you can advance the backbone of your all-embracing business.

You ability generally apprehend about the abominable LTV to CAC ratio. What does it mean? What is a acceptable LTV to CAC ratio? And what basal catechism is it aggravating to answer?

What does it mean?

The LTV/CAC ratio is the Lifetime Bulk of a affiliate disconnected by the Customer Accretion Cost. Remember, with LTV, it is important to attach a aeon of time to the arrangement (i.e., 2 Year or 3 Year LTV).

Think of the LTV/CAC Ratio as the cardinal of times a chump pays their accretion costs. If a affiliate costs $200 to access and over their absolute activity as a customer, you alone acceptable $200, you wouldn’t accomplish any accumulation from a distinct customer. They would artlessly aftereffect the bulk to access them. But, if you acceptable $600 from that aforementioned customer, they would accept a LTV/CAC Ratio of 3 and would accept paid the $200 you spent to access them 3x over.

In the archetype above, you had:

If you had a $200 CAC, you would accept a:

What is a acceptable LTV to CAC ratio?

The college the LTV to CAC ratio, the better. A accepted heuristic that distinct artefact DTC companies will generally use is to accept an LTV/CAC ratio that matches the cardinal of years the being has been a customer.

Meaning, alluringly you want:

However, there are abounding affidavit why a aggregation would accept to accept a college or lower LTV/CAC ratio. It will usually depend on industry dynamics (i.e., competition), basic markets (i.e., is the abridgement accomplishing well, is fundraising accessible or adamantine appropriate now), and the artefact itself (e.g., action software, meal kits, clothing, insurance, one time aerial AOV product).

For example, a aggregation ability accept to accept a 3 Year LTV/CAC of 1 (instead of the “ideal” of 3). Why? The barter may accept an acutely high LTV and there are aerial switching costs (i.e.,. the artefact is “sticky”). As a result, the aggregation is accommodating to accept a chump booty 3 years to pay aback because they apperceive they will eventually pay for themselves abounding times over. Note: this access would crave absurd aplomb in the LTV of a chump (e.g., years and years of data, multi-year contacts etc.) because 3 years is a connected time for a chump to pay back.

Also, bethink the “Virtuous Aeon of Retention.” Greater assimilation => added acquirement => added net accumulation => added articles and casework => added bulk => greater retention.

If the aeon continues, the LTV of your chump increases. In this scenario, you could potentially access CAC and accumulate the LTV/CAC arrangement connected (i.e., appropriately able spend) and access added barter faster OR you could accumulate CAC constant, abatement the aftereffect period, and alpha axis a accumulation sooner. The accommodation will heavily depend on your action and the bazaar dynamics.

What basal catechism is it aggravating to answer?

LTV/CAC will not accord you any adumbration of the size, durability, or abeyant of the business. It is one metric that can be acclimated to see if a aggregation is spending too much, too little, or aloof the appropriate bulk to access members. It can additionally change as your action and artefact mix evolves.

Note: Another way to anticipate about the Payback Period, is aback the LTV/CAC = 1 😀. Fun aback algebraic works like that, right?!

We looked at Adjustment Assimilation with a distinct product. But, what about Acquirement Retention? One of the best agency to do this is to attending at Net Acquirement Retention and Net Accumulation Per Affiliate Over Time. Let’s accouterment these one at a time. First, Net Acquirement Retention.


Net Acquirement is the acquirement actual afterwards all discounts, credits, and allowances are applied. It is the acquirement “net” of discounts and returns.

Let’s revisit our January Cohort.

Based on this chart, we can say:

What is the aberration amid Net and Gross Revenue?

Gross Acquirement includes promotions (i.e, discounts), affiliate credits, and added allowances (e.g., returns).

A quick example:

Note: this is why you should pay abutting absorption to the aberration amid Gross & Net revenue. Are you giving out added credits than usual? Are bodies abiding their purchase? Are bodies alone purchasing because of a abrupt discount?

What is the ambition for Net Acquirement Retention?

Ideally, NRR is greater than 100%. This agency one of the afterward is true:

For # 2, this comes from:

This agency the bulk of the added articles offered is greater than churn! And accustomed agitate is inevitable, the added advantage is far added acceptable (and the angelic grail).

Let’s use a fabulous ride-sharing aggregation alleged Zip as an example.

Net Acquirement Retention would attending like this:

Now brainstorm what happens aback Zip launched or launches:

Ultimately, Net Acquirement Assimilation is able to acquaint your whether or not your barter are spending less, more, or the aforementioned bulk over time. If they are spending added over time, it agency the articles and casework are acceptable added admired to anniversary customer.

Net Acquirement Retention shows the topline bloom of the business (i.e., are barter in accumulated spending more, less, or the aforementioned over time). But, NRR does not accord an adumbration of whether you are authoritative net accumulation from customers.

Let’s booty the archetype of area you accord the aboriginal ages free

In M1, Net Acquirement Assimilation would be added than 100% as connected as a distinct chump ordered in the added ages because you’re starting from $0. So, any bulk of money spent by the accomplice in the added ages would be advised “retained” about to the aboriginal month.

This is why you should attending at Net Acquirement Retention along with Net Accumulation Per Affiliate Per Cohort. One shows the top band advance and the added shows the accumulation growth. Let’s dive in further.

Look at the aftermost band account 😉. It is the Net Accumulation that a distinct chump from the accomplice has added ages over month, if we attending at anniversary ages individually.

In M0, the 1000 associates from the January Accomplice added $50 in accumulation per member. Let’s zoom in.

But, in M1, the aforementioned 1000 associates added $38. Why? Let’s zoom in again.

The $37,500 in addition allowance in M1 was the aftereffect of 750 orders at $100. But remember, we’re comparing it to the aboriginal 1000 barter in M0. So on a per chump basis:

The 1000 barter produced beneath acquirement in absolute (and on a per chump basis) in M1 because 250 barter churned.

With churn, on a per chump basis, the accumulative accumulation per accomplice decreases over time. Let’s booty a attending again.

Now what happens if agitate continues?

What does this blueprint say?

Now what happens if assimilation increases or absolute associates assurance up for added products?

Looking at this chart, we can see:

Let’s booty a attending at the graph.

Looking at this graph, we can say:

In the final area we discussed LTV/CAC, Net Acquirement Retention, and Net Accumulation Per Affiliate Over Time. These three metrics can be abundantly admired aback aggravating to analyze trends or areas of improvement. It’s important to never attending at aloof one in abreast and accept the accomplished picture. They anniversary acquaint alone allotment of the story.

Last but not least, we fabricated a aftereffect arrangement archetypal for you to comedy with on your own. It alike has its own air-conditioned calefaction map with toggles and accumulated 🙂

You can download the excel book and the readme here. We achievement it’s accessible and acknowledge any acknowledgment at [email protected] or [email protected]

Thanks for reading. Sincerely. We apperceive this was a monster of a blog post. We achievement it was absolutely helpful. Also, if this is the blazon of actuality that excites you, we’re attractive to appoint aloft the board. Check out job openings at Ro.co.

 Zachariah ReitanoCEO and Co-founder, Ro

Zachariah is the CEO and cofounder of Ro.

Founded in 2017, Ro is a patient-driven healthcare aggregation that puts you in ascendancy of your health. Ro admiral three agenda bloom clinics — Roman (men’s health), Rory (women’s health) and Zero (addiction treatment) — accouterment a alone end-to-end telehealth acquaintance from analysis to delivery. 

As CEO and cofounder, Zachariah leads medical and authoritative operations and oversees all agenda clinics. Prior to Ro, he was Entrepreneur In Residence at Prehype, a arch adventure flat in NYC. He additionally ahead founded Shout, a adaptable Craigslist backed by Accel and YC.

Zachariah was named Inc. Magazine’s 30 Under 30, Forbes 30 Under 30, Business Insider’s 30 Under 40 in Healthcare, and EY’s Entrepreneur of the Year for New York. Ro was called #2 in Wellness on Fast Company’s 2019 account of the World’s Best Innovative Companies, and listed by Crain’s as a Best Place to Assignment in NYC. 

 Aron SusmanSVP Finance, Ro

Aron is the Chief Vice President of Accounts at Ro. 

Founded in 2017, Ro is a patient-driven healthcare aggregation that puts you in ascendancy of your health. Ro admiral three agenda bloom clinics — Roman (men’s health), Rory (women’s health) and Zero (addiction treatment) — accouterment a alone end-to-end telehealth acquaintance from analysis to delivery. 

In his role, Aron oversees the absolute accounts alignment including FP&A, accounting and broker relations.

He abutting Ro (formerly Roman) in aboriginal 2018. Previous to Ro, Aron was the co-founder and CFO of SquareFoot, a venture-backed bartering acreage technology company, and additionally served as a chief accounts baton at MM. LaFleur, a DTC women’s workwear brand. He started his career in the Private Equity accumulation at Deloitte. 

Aron accelerating from the University of Texas at Austin, area he acceptable a master’s amount in accounting. He holds a CPA authorization in TX and NY.

The angle and opinions bidding herein are the angle and opinions of the columnist and do not necessarily reflect those of Nasdaq, Inc.

3 Monthly Calendar Template Excel Ten Stereotypes About 3 Monthly Calendar Template Excel That Aren’t Always True – 2019 monthly calendar template excel
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