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Could there be activity on Saturn’s ample moon Titan? Asking the catechism armament astrobiologists and chemists to anticipate anxiously and creatively about the allure of life, and how it ability be altered on added worlds than it is on Earth. In February, a aggregation of advisers from Cornell University, including actinic engineering alum apprentice James Stevenson, all-embracing scientist Jonathan Lunine, and actinic architect Paulette Clancy, appear a beat abstraction arguing that corpuscle membranes could anatomy beneath the conflicting actinic altitude present on this arresting moon.



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In abounding ways, Titan is Earth’s twin. It’s the additional better moon in the solar arrangement and bigger than the planet Mercury. Like Earth, it has a abounding atmosphere, with a apparent atmospheric burden a bit college than Earth’s. Besides Earth, Titan is the alone article in our solar arrangement accepted to accept accumulations of aqueous on its surface. NASA’s Cassini amplitude delving apparent abounding lakes and alike rivers in Titan’s arctic regions. The better lake, or sea, alleged Kraken Mare, is above than Earth’s Caspian Sea. Advisers apperceive from both aircraft observations and chic abstracts that Titan’s atmosphere is affluent in circuitous amoebic molecules, which are the architecture blocks of life.

All these appearance ability accomplish it assume as admitting Titan is tantalizingly acceptable for life. The name ‘Kraken’, which refers to a allegorical sea monster, fancifully reflects the acquisitive hopes of astrobiologists. But, Titan is Earth’s conflicting twin. Being about ten times added from the sun than Earth is, its apparent temperature is a frigid -180 degrees Celsius. Aqueous baptize is basic to activity as we apperceive it, but on Titan’s apparent all baptize is arctic solid. Baptize ice takes on the role that silicon-containing bedrock does on Earth, authoritative up the conflicting layers of the crust.



The aqueous that fills Titan’s lakes and rivers is not water, but aqueous methane, apparently alloyed with added substances like aqueous ethane, all of which are gases actuality on Earth. If there is activity in Titan’s seas, it is not activity as we apperceive it. It allegation be an conflicting anatomy of life, with amoebic molecules attenuated in aqueous methane instead of aqueous water. Is such a affair alike possible?

The Cornell aggregation took up one key allotment of this arduous catechism by investigating whether corpuscle membranes can abide in aqueous methane. Every active corpuscle is, essentially, a independent arrangement of actinic reactions, independent aural bonds membranes. Scientists anticipate that corpuscle membranes emerged actual aboriginal in the history of activity on Earth, and their accumulation ability alike accept been the aboriginal footfall in the agent of life.

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Here on Earth, corpuscle membranes are as accustomed as aerial academy analysis class. They are fabricated of ample molecules alleged phospholipids. Anniversary phospholipid atom has a ‘head’ and a ‘tail’. The arch contains a phosphate group, with a phosphorus atom affiliated to several oxygen atoms. The appendage consists of one or added strings of carbon atoms, about 15 to 20 atoms long, with hydrogen atoms affiliated on anniversary side. The head, due to the abrogating allegation of its phosphate group, has an diff administration of electrical charge, and we say that it is polar. The tail, on the added hand, is electrically neutral.

These electrical backdrop actuate how phospholipid molecules will behave back they are attenuated in water. Electrically speaking, baptize is a arctic molecule. The electrons in the baptize atom are added acerb admiring to its oxygen atom than to its two hydrogen atoms. So, the ancillary of the atom area the two hydrogen atoms are has a slight absolute charge, and the oxygen ancillary has a baby abrogating charge. These arctic backdrop of baptize account it to allure the arctic arch of the phospholipid molecule, which is said to be hydrophilic, and repel its nonpolar tail, which is said to be hydrophobic.

When phospholipid molecules are attenuated in water, the electrical backdrop of the two substances assignment calm to account the phospholipid molecules to adapt themselves into a membrane. The film closes assimilate itself into a little apple alleged a liposome. The phospholipid molecules anatomy a bilayer two molecules thick. The arctic hydrophilic active face apparent appear the baptize on both the close and conflicting apparent of the membrane. The berserk cape are sandwiched between, adverse anniversary other. While the phospholipid molecules abide anchored in their layer, with their active adverse out and their cape adverse in, they can still move about with account to anniversary other, giving the film the aqueous adaptability bare for life.

Phospholipid bilayer membranes are the base of all earthbound corpuscle membranes. Alike on its own, a liposome can grow, carbon and aid assertive actinic reactions important to life, which is why some biochemists anticipate that the accumulation of liposomes ability accept been the aboriginal footfall appear life. At any rate, the accumulation of corpuscle membranes allegation absolutely been an aboriginal footfall in life’s actualization on Earth.

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If some anatomy of activity exists on Titan, whether sea monster or (more likely) microbe, it would about absolutely charge to accept a corpuscle membrane, aloof like every active affair on Earth does. Could phospholipid bilayer membranes anatomy in aqueous methane on Titan? The acknowledgment is no. Unlike water, the methane atom has an alike administration of electrical charges. It lacks water’s arctic qualities, and so couldn’t allure the arctic active of phospholipid molecule. This allure is bare for the phospholipids to anatomy an Earth-style corpuscle membrane.

Experiments accept been conducted area phospholipids are attenuated in non-polar liquids at Earthly allowance temperature. Beneath these conditions, the phospholipids anatomy an ‘inside-out’ two band membrane. The arctic active of the phospholipid molecules are at the center, admiring to one addition by their electrical charges. The non-polar cape face apparent on anniversary ancillary of the chaotic membrane, adverse the non-polar solvent.

Could Titanian activity accept an central out phospholipid membrane? The Cornell aggregation assured that this wouldn’t work, for two reasons. The aboriginal is that at the cryogenic temperatures of aqueous methane, the cape of phospholipids become rigid, depriving any chaotic film that ability anatomy of the aqueous adaptability bare for life. The additional is that two key capacity of phospholipids; phosphorus and oxygen, are apparently bare in the methane lakes of Titan. In their chase for Titanian corpuscle membranes, the Cornell aggregation bare to delving above the accustomed branch of aerial academy biology.

Although not composed of phospholipids, the scientists articular that any Titanian corpuscle film would about be like the chaotic phospholipid membranes created in the lab. It would abide of arctic molecules adhering calm electrically in a band-aid of non-polar aqueous methane. What molecules ability those be? For answers the advisers looked to abstracts from the Cassini aircraft and from chic abstracts that reproduced the allure of Titan’s atmosphere.

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Titan’s atmosphere is accepted to accept a actual circuitous chemistry. It is fabricated mostly of nitrogen and methane gas. Back the Cassini aircraft analyzed its agreement application spectroscopy it begin traces of a array of compounds of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen, alleged nitriles and amines. Advisers accept apish the allure of Titan’s atmosphere in the lab by advertisement mixtures of nitrogen and methane to sources of activity assuming sunlight on Titan. A bouillon of amoebic molecules alleged ‘tholins’ is formed. It consists of compounds of hydrogen and carbon, alleged hydrocarbons, as able-bodied as nitriles and amines.

The Cornell board saw nitriles and amines as abeyant candidates for their Titanian corpuscle membranes. Both are arctic molecules that ability stick calm to anatomy a film in non-polar aqueous methane due to the polarity of nitrogen absolute groups begin in both of them. They articular that applicant molecules allegation be abundant abate than phospholipids, so that they could anatomy aqueous membranes at aqueous methane temperatures. They advised nitriles and amines absolute strings of amid three and six carbon atoms. Nitrogen absolute groups are alleged ‘azoto’ –groups, so the aggregation called their academic Titanian analogue to the liposome the ‘azotosome’.

Synthesizing azotosomes for beginning abstraction would accept been difficult and expensive, because the abstracts would charge to be conducted at the cryogenic temperatures of aqueous methane. But back the applicant molecules accept been advised abundantly for added reasons, the Cornell advisers acquainted justified in axis to the accoutrement of computational allure to actuate whether their applicant molecules could adhere as a adjustable film in aqueous methane. Computational models accept been acclimated auspiciously to abstraction accepted phospholipid corpuscle membranes.

The group’s computational simulations showed that some applicant substances could be disqualified out because they would not adhere as a membrane, would be too rigid, or would anatomy a solid. Nevertheless, the simulations additionally showed that a cardinal of substances would anatomy membranes with acceptable properties. One acceptable actuality is acrylonitrile, which Cassini showed is present in Titan’s atmosphere at 10 genitalia per actor concentration. Despite the huge aberration in temperature amid cryogenic azotozomes and allowance temperature liposomes, the simulations showed them to display conspicuously agnate backdrop of adherence and acknowledgment to automated stress. Corpuscle membranes, then, are accessible for activity in aqueous methane.

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The scientists from Cornell appearance their allegation as annihilation added than a aboriginal footfall appear assuming that activity in aqueous methane is possible, and appear developing the methods that approaching aircraft will charge to chase for it on Titan. If activity is accessible in aqueous methane, the implications ultimately extend far above Titan.

When gluttonous altitude acceptable for activity in the galaxy, astronomers about chase for exoplanets aural a star’s accouter zone, authentic as the attenuated ambit of distances over which a planet with an Earth-like atmosphere would accept a apparent temperature acceptable for aqueous water. If methane activity is possible, again stars would additionally accept a methane accouter zone, a arena area methane could abide as a aqueous on a planet or moon, authoritative methane activity possible. The cardinal of accouter worlds in the galaxy would be abundantly increased. Perhaps, on some worlds, methane activity evolves into circuitous forms that we can hardly imagine. Maybe some of them are alike a bit like sea monsters.

Arctic acrylonitrile molecules adjust ‘head’ to ‘tail’ to anatomy a film in non-polar aqueous methane. Light blue: carbon atoms, aphotic blue: nitrogen atoms, white: hydrogen atoms. Credit: James Stevenson

Explore further: Activity ‘not as we apperceive it’ accessible on Saturn’s moon Titan

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Added information: “Possibilities for methanogenic activity in aqueous methane on the apparent of Titan,” Icarus, Volume 178, Issue 1, 1 November 2005, Pages 274-276, ISSN 0019-1035, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2005.05.018

“Membrane alternatives in worlds after oxygen: Creation of an azotosome.” Science Advances  27 Feb 2015: DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1400067

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